Advertising places external business messages before target receivers through media buys. How to advertise for jobs in Ethiopia A media buy is a fee that is paid to a television network, web site, magazine, etc. by an advertiser to insert an advertisement. The fee is based on the perceived value of the audience who watches, reads, listens to, or frequents the space where the ad will appear.
In recent years, receivers have begun to filter advertiser’s messages. This phenomenon is perceived to be a result of the large amount of ads the average person sees each day and a growing level of consumer wariness of paid messaging. Advertisers, in turn, are trying to create alternative forms of advertising that receivers won’t filter. The advertorial is one example of an external communication that combines the look of an article with the focused message of an ad. Product placements in videos, movies, and games are other ways that advertisers strive to reach receivers with commercial messages.
A web page’s external communication can combine elements of public relations, advertising, and editorial content, reaching receivers on multiple levels and in multiple ways. Banner ads, blogs, and advertiser-driven “click-through” areas are just a few of the elements that allow a business to deliver a message to a receiver online. The perceived flexibility of online communications can impart a less formal (and therefore, more believable) quality to an external communication. A message relayed in a daily blog post, for example, will reach a receiver differently than if it is delivered in an annual report. The “real-time” quality of web communications may appeal to receivers who might filter out traditional ads and public relations messages due to their “prefab” quality. Despite a “spontaneous” feel, many online pages can be revisited many times in a single day. For this reason, clear and accurate external communications are as vital for online use as they are in traditional media.
Customer communications can include letters, catalogs, direct mail, e-mails, text messages, and telemarketing messages. The key to a successful external communication to customers is to convey a business message in personally-compelling way-dramatic news, a money-saving coupon, and so forth.
Internal communication involves transmission of information within the organization. Among various ways of communicating with organization are: memos, reports, meetings, face-to-face discussions, teleconference, video conference, notices, etc.
Internal communication is a vital means of attending to matters of company concern. Internal communication can be further classified as formal and informal.
Dear students, in this section of the unit you will study formal and informal communication channels. Based on formality, communication can be formal or informal. The formal communication channel takes place using the official channel. Whereas, informal communication is a communication in which message is transmitted over non-official channels within the organization.
Within the organization, information may be transmitted from superiors to subordinates (downward communication) subordinates to superiors (upward communication), among people at the same level on the organizational chart (horizontal communication), and among people in different departments in different positions within the organization (diagonal communication). These four types of communication make up the organization’s formal communication network. The following figure shows the formal communication network.
Dear learners, communication that involves a message exchange between two or more levels of the organizational hierarchy is called vertical communication. It can involve a manager and a subordinate or can involve several layers of the hierarchy. It can flow in a downward or an upward direction.
The differences between downward and upward communication can be compared to the force of water when it flows up or down. Downward communication is like water streaming down from a waterfall or a showerhead. It pours down easily with great force and wets a large area, while upward communication is like a small spurt of water shooting up from a fountain against the pull of gravity. The higher it travels, the more it loses its force. Official top -to- bottom communication channels flow down with great force and reach a great many people, but official bottom – to – top channels flow up with difficulty, and reach relatively few people.
Downward communications are formal messages that flow from managers to subordinates, as it is illustrated by the figure below. The message might take the form of a casual conversation or formal interview between a supervisor and an individual employee. Or it might be disseminated orally to a group through a meeting, workshop etc. Or it can be a written memo, news letter, bulletin board announcements.
Downward communication across several levels is prone to considerable distortion. Much of top management’s message may be lost by the time the message reaches five levels below. There are usually three main reasons for the distortion.
- Faulty message transmission methods – it may occur because of sender’s carelessness, poor communication skills, and the difficulty of encoding a message that will be clearly understood by individuals at multiple levels.
- One way communication – Another is that managers tend to overuse one-way communication methods, such as, memos, manuals, and newsletters, leaving little possibility for immediate feedback regarding receiver understanding.
- Lack of Awareness – Some managers don’t know about all the types of downward communication. Giving instructions is natural enough, but the other functions such as explaining organizational rationale and giving feedback aren’t so obvious.
- Insufficient or Unclear Messages –The message may be too brief lacking enough detail to make it clear. Or it may be too vague to be useful.
- Message Overload – There can be too many messages, making it difficult to pay attention to any of them. The Messages can also be too long, disguising important information in the sea of details or it can be too complicated to understand. Over leading people with too much information can be like over loading on packhorse: you run the risk that none of the goods will be delivered.
- Bad Timing- Giving a good and clear message at the wrong time can cause trouble. For example, a boss who gives clear message while an employee’s phone is ringing or both are in a hurry shouldn’t expect complete understanding. Psychological timing is important too. For example, it would be a mistake to conduct a performance appraisal interview just after a worker has had a job setback or while the employee is working out a personal problem.
Filtering and Distortion – Another problem in the downward communication is that some managers may intentionally or unintentionally filter communications by withholding, screening, or manipulating information. It is hard to understand most messages that contain bad news.