In the statement of purpose, clearly identify the goal (s) you plan to achieve through the How to find Construction jobs in Ethiopia investigation. For example, you might want to measure the degree of satisfaction customers have with customer service of a particular company. From that measure of satisfaction, you can identify specific problems with present policies and procedures and make recommendations to correct problems and improve service or your purpose might be to find out why employee turnover is so high knowing that should lead to recommendations for decreasing turnover.
- The Statement of the Problem
The statement of the problem clearly outlines the specific concern that the report seeks to answer. In this section, you can express the problem in sentence form, in one of three acceptable ways. First, you might state the problem as a question. For example, what is our customer’s level of satisfaction with the way we provide service?” Second, you might state the problem as an infinitive. An example would be “The problem of this report is to measure the current level of satisfaction that our customers have with our service.” Last, you can use a declarative statement, or statement of fact. For example, “Management must know haw much customers are dissatisfied with our service and why.”
After clearly expressing the problem statement, you can include more specific concerns or questions that you will address in the report. These specific questions or concerns can guide both parties in writing and reading the report.
- The Background
The background section tells your reader what he or she needs to know before reading further.
Using the following pattern in presenting the background information helps focus your reader’s attention on the specific report topic:
- A general description of the problem from a global or national standpoint,
- A more specific description of the problem in the organization,
- An identification of the primary facts involved in choosing to investigate the situation, and
- An explanation of what caused the problem and the need to solve it.
Depending on the topic, the reader’s familiarity with the topic, and the reader’s preference, adjust your presentation accordingly. Also, you may be asked to present other kinds of appropriate information to orient the reader and provide a good overview for what will follow in the remainder of the report.
The background information could use ten to fifteen pages or more.
- The Scope
In the scope section of the report, you describe what the report will cover about the topic. Here you narrow the topic and can also state what the report will not cover. Some writers call this process ”delimiting the problem.” After reading this section, readers can answer the following questions:
- To whom do the results apply?
- What factors are being examined?
- For what period are the results applicable?
- Are any geographic boundaries present?
Specifically identifying the people, content, time, and place boundary helps readers understand the extent to which they can apply or generalize the results of the report.
- The Limitations.
The best word to describe the information in the limitations section is “weaknesses.” By admitting and identifying “up front” the weaknesses of the project, you help readers make better decisions about implementing the recommendations. If you don’t acknowledge weaknesses, the credibility of the results may suffer.
You can experience several limitations over which you have no control: difficulty in obtaining data, the subjectivity of the data, and the lack of time or money to do as thorough as you might want. These limitations, however, should in no way furnish excuses for poor performance in researching the problem or in producing quality work.
The limitations section is somewhat negative in nature. However, you can emphasize that the research report provides useful information, in spite of limiting factors. Sometimes writers include a section called “De limitations.” De limitations are decisions over which you have control. They are also potential threats to the validity of the results. For example, a writer may decide to survey communication teachers in Aldis Abba commercial college. The writer delimits the topic by choosing not to include teachers in other parts of the country or in other educational institutions. The point is that this writer could have expanded the study to a larger group of individuals, but chose not to. Thus, generalization would be difficult.
- The Research Procedures
This section explains how the researcher solved the research problem. It begins with a brief overview of the entire project, summarizes each related activity in the research project, and describes the procedures in an easy-to-understand way. Include a step-by-step description of the procedures for collecting data, interpreting the data, and presenting the results. Including support and explanation for any significant decisions made throughout the process helps convince readers that you followed the proper steps. If readers understand clearly why you used specific procedures and why these were correct, the credibility of the report increases.
- The Findings
The findings section lets you describe and explain what you found in the investigation. The information included in the findings should answer the question “What did I find?” Depending on the length and complexity of the formal report, you can report the findings as a single section or chapters. The findings form the basis for the conclusions and recommendations that follow.
An organized, objective, concrete and interesting presentation of information in the findings section adds credibility to the conclusions and recommendations.
- The summary, conclusions & Recommendations
The summary summery section sums up the report to the point that the conclusions & recommendations section (s) begin. Remember, no new date appears in the conclusions or the recommendations. It is necessary to derive conclusions direct from the findings. That is formulate recommendations from the conclusions. Not every finding will result in a conclusion; similarly, not every conclusion will result in a recommendation.
A summary section often appears in longer, formal reports. It provides a brief summary of the entire report to that point. The summary helps readers who skip the detail in the introduction and findings sections. Instead, they immediately read the end of the report to find key information and results. The summary also served readers who read the entire report by briefly reviewing the information covered before reading the conclusions and recommendations.
The conclusions answer the question ”so what?” To write effective conclusions, you must decide on your research questions and state then as such. If the statement in the findings section say ”Here are the important findings,” rewrite them to say ”Here is what those important findings mean to us.” Some writers include a brief summary of the findings that support each conclusion, either before or after stating a specific conclusion. This approach clearly identifies the reasoning behind the conclusion.
The recommendations answer the question ”Now what?” They report what action is to be taken. The word will likely appear in many recommendation statements. As in the conclusions section, each recommendation statement required support from a corresponding conclusion(s), hence, it is possible to write them correspondingly.
Supplementary information provides additional facts that the reader may or may not use. The notes, if used, provide credit to other sources when the writer uses their ideas and words throughout the report.
- End notes
End notes are acceptable because they are easy to produce. Footnotes offer more convenience for readers who have interest in your sources. But footnotes can distract readers who have no interest in where you get your information. Choose the method that fits your needs and your reader’s needs best, however, bear in mind you give credit where credit is due.
- Bibliography or List of References
If you use all written materials in the referenced, then the heading “Bibliography” is appropriate. If some references are interviewed, films, speeches, or other non-written sources, “Reference” is the appropriate section title.
In the appendix, you can include additional materials for a report. The information in the appendix is useful but not crucial for understanding the findings presented in the report text.