- communication is the process of sharing thoughts, ideas, and feelings with each other in commonly understandable ways and How to find human resource jobs in Ethiopia
- Communication is “the broad field of human interchange of facts and opinions and not the technologies of telephone, telegraph, radio and the like.
From the above definitions, you might notice that all of them stress that there should at least two people for communication to occur and there should also be some kind of message that is intended to be transmitted from one party to another. Thus, when people communicate, they express their ideas and feelings in a way that is understandable to each other.
Dear learners, when do we say that communication is taking place?
There are many ways of communicating and many times what we hear is not what the other person said, and consequently, what we say frequently can be interpreted in an entirely different manner by the listener. Generally, communication is said to exist when:
- There is a person (sender or transmitter) desirous of passing on some information.
- There is another person (receiver) to whom the information is to be passed on.
- The receiver partly or wholly understands the message passed on to her/him.
- The receiver responds to the message received; i.e. there is some kind of feedback.
Communication cannot exist in the absence of any of these four components. communication to exist at least two parties and a message (either oral or written) that is intended to be communicated are desired. Communication further requires that the receiver of the message understands it and conform this by nodding or by giving some kind of gesture or by verbally responding.
For example, let’s say that a teacher is writing the answer to a complex mathematical problem on the blackboard, but offers neither a verbal explanation for how he arrived at the answer nor the opportunity for questions. In this instance, the teacher has sent a message (via blackboard); however, there is a high possibility that many students do not fully understand what the message meant. Thus, complete communication has not taken place. Therefore, communication is a process of ‘sharing’ rather than simply sending information.
Dear learners, from the above discussion can you explain the basic nature of communication?
Communication has the following basic attributes/characteristics:
- Communication has no beginning or ending
Communication is a process that is dynamic, not static. It is something that is in process has no clearly visible beginning or end, it is a continual happening.
- Communication results in mutual influence
As a process, communication is continual cycle of mutual influence. The attitudes, values, experiences, beliefs, and needs of the senders influence the communicative choices they make. Their choices regarding with whom to talk and the topics about which they talk are constrained by this complex set of factors. Once a decision to talk has been made, past experience, present attitudes, interests, values, and goals combined with features of the specific communication situation affect choices of what to say and how to say it.
As people communicate, they are each influenced by the interaction, which further affects what is said and how it is said. Thus the communication cycle continues. Although we all depend on our experience for guidance in our communication behavior, no two communication situations or events are the same. They may only be similar.
- Communication takes place using Symbols
Communication is a process in which participants are influenced by assigning meaning to symbols intentionally and unintentionally exchanged. A symbol is a representation of a thing, idea, place, event, or person. A company’s logo, for instance, is a symbol because when people see it, they associate it with that particular company’ product.
Symbols can take many forms. We will focus primarily on two major forms: verbal and non-verbal symbols.
- Verbal symbols: Verbal symbols (words) are arbitrarily accepted within a given culture to stand for the things they represent. The things they represent are called referents. For example, the word chair stands for an object (the referent) with which we are familiar. The Amharic word is ‘Wonder’ for the same object. Words are social conventions which allow for shared meaning.
- Non-verbal symbols: They include-
- Kine sis– refers to the use of movement to communicate. Movements of the face, the hands, or the whole body convey messages about the speaker, how the speaker perceives the situation, and how the speaker sees the listener.
- Haptics- Touch is another type of non-verbal symbol. We use touch for a variety of purposes- to convey warmth, support, sexual attraction, or ridicule, or to exert power.
- Spicules- Eye gazes and eye movement provide another means of communicating non verbally.
- Polemics- people use space and distance to communicate. For example, how close or how far we stand from another may convey something about the relationship we have with that person. We tend to stand or sit nearer to people with whom we have a close or intimate relationship.
- Para language– it refers to vocal characteristics, such as tone of voice, vocal inflection, loudness, pitch, quality of voice, and pauses.\
A common saying about communication is “one cannot not communicate” when we are in an interaction situation. This simply means that everything a person does can be interpreted. When you sit still and say nothing, people can interpret you as thoughtful, apathetic, confused, or even asleep. As long as you are in contact with other people, what you say and do and what you do not say and do not do will be interpreted. In essence, then, communication is a process in which symbols are exchanged, either intentionally or unintentionally