How to find Non Governmental jobs in Ethiopia

 Unit Introduction

Communication through words may be in writing or oral. Written communication entails How to find Non Governmental jobs in Ethiopia transmission of message in black and white. It mainly consists of diagrams, pictures, graphs, etc. Reports, policies, rules, orders, instructions, agreements, etc have to be conveyed in written form for proper functioning of the organization.


Written communication guarantees that everyone concerned has the same information. It provides a long-lasting record of communication for future. Written instructions are essential when the action called for is crucial and complex. To be effectual, written communication should be understandable, brief, truthful and comprehensive.


In this unit, you will study the common written communication method-letters, memos, and reports. Most letters and memos are relatively brief documents, generally one or more pages. Memos, the ”workhorses” of business communication are used for the routine, day-to-day exchange of information within an organization. Letters, which go to outsiders, perform important public relations functions in addition to conveying a particular message.


5.2 Unit Objectives:

After completing this unit you should be able to:

  • Differentiate letter, memo and reports
  • Explain the formats of business letter, identify its parts and their positions
  • Identify the styles of business letters
  • Write an effective business letters
  • Explain the parts of a memo
  • Compile business reports


5. 3 Business Letters and memos


Business letter is one of the most important verbal communication methods. It serves as an ambassador for an organization in any correspondence with its stakeholders. Therefore, it should be written with great care taking in to account several factors. In this section of the unit, you will learn the points to be considered while writing a business letter, formats of the business letter and styles of business letters and business memos.


5.3.1 Business Letters

Dear students, what is business letter? Do you have an experience of writing a business letter? What do you think are the basic components of business letters?

A business letter is a formal way of communicating between two or more parties in writing. It can be informational, persuasive, motivational, or promotional. The most important points that should always be taken in to consideration before writing a business letter is to identify a specific audience to whom one is writing, defining the objective clearly and in a concise manner.


  • Points to be considered in writing business letters


A good business letter;

  • should be communicative
  • Use positive opening statements
  • should be accurate, thoroughness, concise, clear, and prompt
  • should have a standard part and supplemental parts



5.3.2 Letter Format


You will use the following nine elements of letters in almost all letter styles.

  1. heading/Return address/Sender’s address

This is important for any organization released letter.  The return address on the letter serves as a necessary reference for the recipient. It doesn’t include the name of the sender because it appears at the end of the letter.


  1. Date

The date line is used to indicate the date the letter was written. It serves as an important tracking device for a letter. Both senders and recipients use the date to identify a particular piece of correspondence. It indicates the date, the month and year in which the letter is written for example, March 9, 2009.


  1. Inside Address

This part carries the postal telephone, fax etc addresses of the receiver of the business letter. It serves as a future reference on the copy the sender keeps the address’s name should also include his or her title in the inside address.


  1. Salutation

This part is carries simple expression of greeting and appears beneath the inside address. Example, Dear sir, Dear Al emu, and Dear Manager etc are the common salutation. Traditionally, the salutation includes the word Dear with the receiver’s name following.


  1. Subject line

This serves as a title of the letter message.  It has two major advantages.  First, it readily identifies to someone the nature of the correspondence.  People may not have to possibly waste time reading the document, because the subject line identifies who should receive the letter.  Second, it provides key words that will help the recipient get to the core of your message quickly.

  1. Body of the letter

The body of the letter begins one space below the message heading. It carries the actual message you are sending.



  1. Complimentary Closes

This serves as polite, “Complimentary” transition from the end of the message to your personal signature.  Common phrases used as complimentary closes include the following:

Sincerely,                                            Yours truly,

Sincerely yours,                                   Yours very truly,

Cordially,                                            With best wishes,

Cordially yours,                                  With best regards.


  1. Signature, Name and official Title

When presenting the name at the end of the letter, you generally do not include the sender’s title (such as Mr., Mrs., Dr…).  However, the person sending the letter includes his or her official job title.


5.3.3 Supplementary Parts of Business letters

Several pieces of reference information may appear at the bottom of a letter.  They begin a double space below the official title of the sender.  For all letter styles, they appear at the left margin. This includes:


  1. Reference initials

If you compose and dictate a letter and someone else prepares the printed copy, both individuals’ initials should appear at the bottom of the letter. The initials of the person who composed the letter appear in all capital letters. Followed by a colon or slash and then the repairer’s initials in small letters.

  1. Enclosure Notations

If you have enclosed any documents along with the letter, such as a resume, you indicate this simply by typing Enclosures one line below the closing. As an option, you may list the name of each document you are including in the envelope. For instance, if you have included many documents and need to ensure that the recipient is aware of each document, it may be a good idea to list the names.


These are standard notation which refers to important materials that are needed by the receiver are attached with the original letter. We use one of the following notations:

Encl: single page/material to be enclosed

Encl: more than one page materials to be enclosed


  1. Copy Notations

If you send a copy of the letter to others, note that person or group of individuals in the reference information section of the letter. CC-carbon copy, PC photographic copy and BK-blind  carbon copy are standard abbreviations which refers to copies of letter concerned to make them become aware of the letter communicate.


  1. Postscript

It is an additional message, sometimes an entire paragraph, which writers add at the bottom of the page.  You can use this tool to send along another message to your reader and emphasize the main message in some way.


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