How to find Post Graduate jobs in Ethiopia

Several things can go wrong when you are formulating a message like How to find Post Graduate jobs in Ethiopia. Typical prob­lems involve indecision about message content, lack of familiarity with the situation or the receiver, emotional conflicts, or difficulty in expressing ideas.


  1. Indecision about Content

Deciding what to say is the first difficulty in the communication process. Many people make the mistake of trying to convey everything they know about a subject. When a message contains too much information, it is difficult to absorb. If you want to get your point across, therefore, you have to decide what to include and what to leave out, how much detail to provide, and what order to follow. If you try to explain something without first giving the receiver adequate background, you will create confusion. And if you recommend actions without first explaining why they are justified, your mes­sage may provoke an emotional response that inhibits understanding. Include only the information that is useful to the receiver, & organize it in a way that encourages its acceptance.


  1. Lack of familiarity with the situation or the receiver

Dear student, can you deliver your message equally well when you are not very familiar with the subject you are talking about; or when you do not know the receiver very well? The answer is ‘no’ because creating an effective message is difficult if you don’t know how it will be used. Let’s say you are writing a report on the Company’s performance last year. If you don’t know the purpose of the report, it’s hard to know what to say. Some of the things you should be clear about before writing the report are:

  • What is the scope/coverage of the report?
  • How long should the report be?
  • Where can you get the information?
  • Who is going to read the report?
  • Should it provide conclusions and recommendations or simply facts and figures?


Unless you know why the report is needed, you really can’t answer these questions intelligently. You are forced to create a very general document, one that covers a little bit of everything.


  • Lack of familiarity with your audience

Lack of familiarity with your audience is also a serious problem that you might face while encoding your ideas. You need to know something about the biases, education, age, status, and style of the receiver in order to create an effective message. If you’re writing for a specialist in your field, for example, you can use technical terms that might be unfamiliar to a layperson. If you are addressing a lower-level employee, you might approach a subject differently than if you were talking to your boss. Decisions about the content, organization, style, and tone of your message all depend, at least to some extent, on the relationship between you and the audience. If you don’t know the audience, you will be forced to make these decisions in the dark. As a result, at least part of your message may miss the point. Hence, ask why you are preparing the message and for whom you are preparing it.


  1. Emotional conflicts

Another potential problem in developing the message arises when the sender has conflicting emotions about the subject or the audience. Let us say you have been asked to recommend ways to improve the organization of your department. You conclude that the best approach is to combine two positions. But this solution will mean eliminating the job of one of your close friends. As you prepare your report, you find yourself apologizing for your recommendation. Even though you believe your position is justi­fied, you cannot make a convincing case. Thus, in business, communication tries to maintain your objectivity.


  1. Difficulty of expressing ideas

Lack of experience in writing or speaking can also prevent a person from developing effective messages. Some people have limited education or a lack of aptitude when it comes to expressing ideas. Perhaps they have a limited vocabulary or are uncertain about questions of grammar, punctuation, and style. Or perhaps they are simply frightened by the idea of writing something or appearing before a group. In any case, they are unable to develop an effective message because they lack expertise in using language.


The important thing is almost all facet of life to recognize the problem and take action. Taking courses in communication at university is a good first step. To put thoughts into words can be made possible through study and practice.


  1. Message

Message refers to the ‘physical form’ of the thoughts or ideas which can be experienced and understood by one or more senses of the receiver. It could be in the form of hearing, reading or other physical gestures.


A signal is the means the sender uses to transmit the intended meaning. Written words, spoken words, and non-verbal signs, including sign languages, gestures, facial expressions, and other physical movements, are all signals. The way we form and transmit messages (verbally, written, formally, privately, publicly) affect the meaning our recipients will put on them.



  1. Channel of communication

The next step after the sender converts the ideas and thoughts in to a message is transmitting the message across the chosen medium of communication from the sender to the receiver. Channel of communication is the vehicle or method used for the transmission of the message. It is a medium/carrier that bridges the gap between the sender and the receiver. You may choose to put your message in writing as a letter or memo and you can deliver it electronically via computer link up, like Internet. Or, you can communicate it orally, either over the phone or in person (face-to-face communication). In other words, internet, letters, memo, reports, face to face discussion, body movement and telephone an example of communication medium that you can use to physically transmit your messages.


However, the choice of the transmission channel depends on the message, audience, need for speed and the situation.


  1. The Receiver

The receiver is the individual to whom the message is directed, also knows as ‘decoder’. When the encoder’s message is picked up, the receiver tries to make sense out of it; i.e. to decode it. Decoding is the process the receiver goes through in trying to interpret the exact meaning of a message. Everyone tries to read between the lines in an effort to interpret what the sender means by the message. If you send a letter, the recipient has to read it before s/he can understand it. If you are giving a speech, the people in the audience have to be able to hear you, and they have to be paying attention.


But physical reception is only the first step. The receiver also has to absorb the message mentally. In other words, the message has to be understood and stored in the receiver’s mind. If all goes well, the message is interpreted correctly: The receiver assigns the same basic meaning to the words as the sender intended and responds in the desired way.

Like transmission problems, problems during the reception phase often have a physical cause. Competing sights and sounds, an uncomfortable chair, poor lighting, or some other irritating condition may distract the receiver. In some cases, the barrier may be related to the receiver’s health. Hearing or visual impairment, for example, or even a headache, can interfere with reception of a message. These annoy­ances don’t generally block communication entirely, but they may reduce the receiv­er’s concentration.


Perhaps the most common barrier to reception is simply lack of attention on the receiver’s part. We all let our minds wander now and then, regardless of how hard we try to concentrate. People are especially likely to drift off when they are forced to listen to information that is difficult to understand or that has little direct bearing on their own lives. If they are tired or concerned about other matters, they are even more likely to lose interest.

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