How to find Science jobs in Ethiopia

Like touch, time and space can be used to assert authority. How to find Science jobs in Ethiopia In many cultures, people demonstrate their importance by making other people wait; they show respect by being on time. However, attitudes toward punctuality are cultural. In North America, being on time is a mark of good manners; in other places, it is more polite to be somewhat late. People can also assert their status by occupying the best space. For instance, in many companies, the chief executive usually has the nicest office and the prettiest view. Apart from serving as a symbol of status, space determines how comfortable people feel talking with each other. When people stand too close or too far away, we feel ill at ease. The comfort zone varies from culture to culture. Somebody from the Middle East would be okay talking with a partner standing close to one another, whereas Americans would find it very uncomfortable talking with someone standing close to one another.


The way people use space is also part of nonverbal communication. Each of us has a variable size of personal space. Personal space refers to the distance that we put between ourselves and others. There are four distances that we use, depending on how we feel toward the person with whom we are communicating.


  1. Intimate distance is usually reserved for people with whom we feel emotionally close. The zone begins with skin contact and ranges out to about 18 inches.
  2. Personal distance can range from 18 inches to about 4 feet. Here again, the contact is rather close, but less personal than the intimate distance.
  3. Social distance, the third zone, ranges from 4 feet to 12 feet. This is the distance at which most business situations occur or ombudsmen deal with residents.
  4. Public distance runs outward from twelve feet. The closer range of public distance is the one most teachers use in the classroom. As you seek to communicate effectively with others, you must be aware of their personal space. If you are trying to establish rapport, you will respect their comfort with various degrees of physical closeness. There maybe other times when you will purposefully “invade” someone’s personal space.
Activity 2.1

  1. Identify and briefly explain the types of nonverbal communication?
  2. Differentiate verbal and non-verbal communication.
  3.  If you want  to communicate a very complex and technical message to someone, which method (verbal or nonverbal) do you prefer? Why or why not?

2.3 The communication process

Dear learners, in the first unit section one we have defined communication as a ‘process of sharing ideas/messages with others’. In this section you will study the activities/steps in the communication process. Steps are sender, encoding, message, channel, receiver and decoding.


          2.4 Steps in the communication process

Dear students, what do you think of the activities/steps in the communication process?



dear student, because communication is such a vital part of the organizational structure,  you have to study the components of the communication process. Whether you are communicating with only one person, with a small group, or with many people, the same basic process occurs. Understanding the elements of the communication process and the role that each element plays is essential for effective communication. As illustrated in figure 2.1, the communication process consists of the sender, encoding, message, communication medium, receiver, recoding and feedback. Each component is explained briefly in the following section.


The communication process begins with a ‘sender’. The sender is a person who initiates the communication process and transmits messages. The sender is the source of the information. This source may want to communicate his ideas, needs, intentions or other pieces of information, which is usually a conscious decision, but you can send messages with or without intending to do so. Even not sending a message is a message.


Two things must happen before the sender even wants to send a message. First, an internal or external stimulus prompts you to send a message. This prompt may arrive in the form of letters, memorandum, penciled note, electronic mail, fax, telex, or even casual conversation in the hallway. Regardless of the stimulus source, it could be a business transaction, a written question, a meeting, an interview, or unexpected request for a favor. Whatever the case might be, you will start thinking of ideas for the message.


It is important to remember, however, that a stimulus alone may not be enough to trigger communication. The second requirement to send message is sufficient motivation. Think of times when a manger asks a question, and some of the people present were fairly sure they knew the answer (were stimulated), but did not respond. Why didn’t they respond? Probably because they were not sufficiently motivated; i.e. they saw no personal benefit in answering. Or they saw greater benefit in not answering. In this case there will not be communication between the manger and the subordinates. Therefore, motivation is important in order to initiate communication in addition to the stimulus that force people to initiate communication.



  1. Encoding

After being stimulated & motivated to communicate, the sender must decide how best to convey his ideas to the specific receiver. Encoding is the process of choosing symbols (verbal and non-verbal) that can best represent the sender’s ideas, thoughts, feelings or pieces of information. Dear students, you have to note that the choice of the symbols depend on your subject, purpose, audience, and personal style or mood. The words that a speaker chooses to deliver a message can make tremendous difference in how that message is received.


By the encoding process ideas, thoughts and feelings become a message. The message is the information or core idea being transmitted. It consists of both verbal (written or spoken) symbols and nonverbal (unspoken) symbols. Verbal information is the part of the message that is heard. Nonverbal information entails such things as body language & the surrounding environment.


Whenever you compose a message, you need to consider what content to include, how the receiver will interpret it, & how it may affect your relationship. A simple ‘thank-you’ message will be relatively easy. In contrast, to inform 200 employees of bad news about salaries will require much more complicated, carefully planned message. To some extent, your choice of words also depends on your cultural back­ground. When you choose your words, you signal that you are a member of a particular club and that you know the code. The nature of your code – your language and vocabulary- imposes its own limits on your message. For example, the language of a lawyer differs from that of an accountant or a doctor, and the difference in their vocabularies affects their ability to recognize and express ideas.

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